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Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades.
Arabia soon became a more politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the vast and newly conquered lands.
By 1891, the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al Saud were driven into exile in Kuwait.One reason was to thwart Portuguese attempts to attack the Red Sea (hence the Hejaz) and the Indian Ocean.The emergence of what was to become the Saudi royal family, known as the Al Saud, began in Nejd in central Arabia in 1744, when Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, A much smaller second "Saudi state", located mainly in Nejd, was established in 1824.The Jabrids took control of the region after overthrowing the Jarwanids in the 15th century and clashed with Hormuz for more than 2 decades over the region for its economic revenues, until finally agreeing to pay tribute in 1507.In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Ahsa) to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior.
The history before the foundation of Saudi Arabia divided into two phases: pre-Islam and after Islam.